Sunday, April 29, 2007

RE: The dangers of amalgam fillings.

----------------- Bulletin Message -----------------
From: Ascension 2012
Date: Apr 29, 2007 11:18 AM

The claim is that when mixed with other metals mercury is non-toxic although it is admitted that the fillings do leak mercury vapors into the mouth. A substance is still harmful even in minute levels, and your body works to get rid of these substances, reducing the working of your immune system. Some of the studies show no noticeable effect of mercury yet people with amalgam fillings have a higher content of mercury in their urine. Over time, any type of poisoning can have a drastic effect on your body. For those who are sensitive such as me, having hypoglycemia, this can contribute to the disorder. I only had one amalgam filling and I just had it removed. I now don't have chronic fatigue like I used to and I feel much better.

The ADA denies that amalgam fillings do any harm and, "has launched an advertising campaign to discourage patients from having their amalgam (silver) fillings removed" probably because they do not want to be sued.

Please also read the end article for tips on safe removal of amalgam fillings.

Amalgam (Mercury Fillings): The Great Dangers

Proven Facts

About Dental Amalgam (Mercury Fillings)

in brackets refer to references at the bottom of this article)

  • Dental
    Amalgam contains about 50% Mercury.

  • Mercury
    has been scientifically demonstrated to be more toxic than Lead, Cadmium
    or even Arsenic.

  • Mercury leaves dental amalgam continuously throughout the lifetime of the

  • Mercury vapour is the main way that mercury comes out of amalgam. (31)

  • Mercury vapour is absorbed at a rate of 80% through the lungs into the arterial
    blood (31, 55)

  • Mercury kills cells.

  • There is NO harmless level of Mercury Vapour Exposure (63)

  • Mercury from mercury fillings binds to sulphydryl groups. These exist in
    almost every enzymatic process in the body. Mercury from amalgam has the
    potential to disturb all metabolic processes (25, 33, 60)

  • Mercury from amalgam is transported freely via the blood (19, 34, 35).

  • Mercury vapour is absorbed directly into the brain (34, 55a)

  • Mercury from amalgam will result in a slow build up of mercury in body tissues
    (20, 26, 34)

  • Mercury crosses the blood brain barrier (34, 55a)

  • Mercury is implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (67, 68)

  • Mercury from amalgam is stored in the foetus and infant before the mother
    (20, 61) (Could this be part of the reason for children getting cancer?).

  • Mercury from amalgam is stored in the breast milk and the foetus up to 8
    times more than the mother's tissues (18, 19)

  • Mercury crosses the placenta (18, 31)

  • Mercury crosses into breast milk (18, 31, 61)

  • Mercury will severely reduce reproductive function (2, 3, 4, 20, 22, 24,
    31, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 49)

  • Mercury rapidly depletes the immune system (27, 34, 35, 42, 43, 44, 45,
    46, 47, 48, 60)

  • Mercury will induce a number of Auto Immune Diseases (27, 34, 35, 42,43,
    44, 60)

  • Mercury will cause an increase in number and severity of all allergies (1,
    34, 60)

  • Mercury from amalgam is stored principally in the kidneys, liver and brain
    (1, 20, 31)

  • Mercury from amalgam causes kidney damage (shown in animal experiments)

  • Mercury from amalgam causes a 50% reduction in Kidney filtration, as shown
    in a study of sheep after amalgam placement (59)

  • After chewing, Mercury vapour levels will remain raised for at least another
    90 minutes (1, 15, 16, 18, 47)

  • Mercury from amalgam will migrate through the tooth (25, 27, 30)

  • This rate of migration is increased if a gold crown is placed over a tooth
    filled with amalgam (27, 30)

  • Teeth are living tissues and are a part of our bodies.

  • Teeth have a massive communication via blood, lymph and nerves with the
    rest of the body (34)

  • Mercury from amalgam is absorbed into the body at a rate of 3 to 17 mcg
    / day (WHO 1991 Criteria 118)

  • Mercury is transported along nerve fibres (33,34, 50)

  • Mercury form amalgam may be stored in every cell in the body. Each area
    affected will produce its own set of symptoms ( See
    "The Real Causes of Pain & Disease


  • Mercury binds to haemoglobin in the red blood cell thus reducing oxygen
    carrying capacity (1, 16, 17, 21, 26,35)

  • Mercury damages blood vessels, thereby reducing blood supply to the tissues

  • Amalgam fillings produce electrical currents which are no doubt injurious
    to health. These currents are measurable in Micro Amps. The Central Nervous
    System and Brain operate in the range of Nano-Amps, which are 1,000 times
    less than a Micro Amp (28)

  • Dissimilar metals in the mouth, such as gold and amalgam, produce higher
    electrical currents (19, 30)

  • Brain levels of mercury are in a direct linear proportion to the number
    of surfaces of amalgam fillings in the mouth (1,19, 25)

  • Mercury will cause single strand breaks in DNA (41,42)

  • Mercury levels in the blood can NOT be assessed by blood or urine levels

  • Dental personnel are severely affected by exposure to mercury (3,13, 49)

are at the bottom of this article)

by the Australasian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicology.       

Phone 61-2-9867 1111


is NO safe form of mercury in living tissue.

Mercury is one component of vaccinations.

Mercury from your body with Detoxamin: A new kind of Chelation


Dental Board Backs Down

Opinion by "Consumer Advocate" Tim Bolen

January 19, 2002

I love it when a plan
comes together...

The people of the State
of Florida, WERE in imminent danger,until yesterday, January 18, 2001. Not
from a terrorist attack,not from a hurricane, but from a source few would
suspect - their friendly, neighborhood dentist. And that dentist - held hostage
- was going to be forced to cooperate, in what some Health Freedom activists
characterize as "the forcing of a known deadly toxin into our bodies"

Everyone in the world
knows that MERCURY is a deadly poison, and wreaks havoc with the human body.
The problem is so well known in government circles that US Congresswoman Diane
Watson, on Monday November 5, 2001 introduced a bill OUTLAWING the use of
mercury fillings in the US over a five year period.

But, prior to yesterday,
it looked like the Florida Dental Board was taking it's orders from quackbuster"
kingpin, Bobbie Baratz, who recently replaced delicensed MD Stephen Barrett
on the

quackpot throne. And that would have meant, simply, that Floridians would
be forced to accept mercury fillings HAMMERED into the mouths of their children,
and loved ones, whether they liked it or not. An apparently corrupt Dental
Association was trying to get the Florida Dental Board to pass rules making
it illegal to warn patients about the effects of the deadly poison (mercury)
that makes up 50% of every (so-called) "silver" dental filling.
They were also trying to pass regulations that would

allow seizure of licenses of practicing dentists who remove mercury fillings,
or advertise to do so. Three new regulations, sponsored by the Florida Dental
Association, were on the table in

front of the Dental board for discussion. They were introduced last September.

The largest manufacturer
of mercury amalgams, I'm told, manufactures in Florida. There has been no
investigation, as yet, into whether State appointed Dental Board members,
or Dental Association members have any financial, or business relationships
with amalgam manufacturers. Maybe it's time to look...


In a two hour meeting
before that Dental board health freedom activists from all over North America
gathered. They were there to counter the LUDICROUS presentation, asking for
the three new

regulations, made to the Florida Dental Board, last September, on behalf of
the Florida Dental Association, by the buffoon-in-chief himself, National
Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) President Bobbie Baratz.

There was standing room

World renowned experts
testified about the dangers of mercury, and the responsibility the Dental
Board has to protect the public. For almost two hours, "real experts"
countered the DRIVEL

previously delivered, in September, to the Florida Board by quackpot Baratz.

Baratz, who was there,
was apparently so intimidated he couldn't speak when it was his turn, at the
end of the meeting. The Dental Association representative declined to have
Baratz speak

at this meeting. They had flown Baratz, who claims he gets $350 per hour as
an "expert," all the way down from Massachusetts. Not to speak?

Maybe the message that
the people of California delivered to their own Dental Board, this last year,
sank in, in Florida. Californians DUMPED their own board, forcing the formation
of a new board, with all new members, after January 1, 2002, because the board
acted arrogantly over ONE issue, the posting of mercury amalgam warnings in
dental offices. The disbanded board kept insisting that "there is no
evidence that mercury amalgams pose a problem." Californians know better.

Or, maybe it was the fact
that the Health Freedom people in Florida, brought their own court reporter,
and their own video team, to record the proceedings. But, whatever...

The Florida Dental Board
backed down...


The Florida campaign was
WELL designed. It was choreographed from start to finish - and it's not finished
yet. The broad-issue health freedom people jumped in and made an alliance
with the dental issue people - an alliance made in heaven. New friends were

The goals, and objectives,
were well thought out. And, an action plan was initiated and carried through
to this point - and it's not over.

Four major things were

(1) Information on the
dangers of mercury amalgam were put into the public record - so that it
cannot be denied,

(2) information on laws
governing what the public needs to be warned about was put into the public
record - so that it cannot be denied,

(3) information on the
"Florida Health Freedom Bill" and it's INTENT was formally entered
into the public record by the Senate and House sponsors of that legislation
- so that it cannot be denied,

(4) information was
entered into the public record about the LACK OF CREDIBILITY of Robert S.
Baratz MD, DDS, PhD (Bobbie Baratz) President of the NCAHF - so that it
cannot be denied.

Of course, the reason
they did these things was calculated. Should the Florida Dental Board have
continued on their original course, with the information they now had in front
of them, they too, like in California, would have been history. That was,
and is, the next step, if necessary.

It isn't necessary - yet.

You don't mess with the
Health Freedom Movement...

Amalgam (Silver) Fillings

Mercury sources and toxicity

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK. Mercury is a highly toxic metal associated with damage to the kidneys and
central nervous system. Mercury vapour is emitted from volcanoes, coal-burning power stations, and
municipal incinerators and returns to the earth through rain contaminated with metallic mercury. Metallic
mercury is methylated to methyl mercury in oceans and lakes and enters the food chain via fish and other
seafood. Long-lived predator fish such as shark, swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and pike and bass in
fresh water are the main sources of methyl mercury. Dental amalgams are an important source of mercury
vapour and the vaccine preservative thimerosal is a significant source of ethyl mercury.

Researchers at the University of Rochester School of Medicine recently published a review of what is
currently known about mercury toxicity. Among the highlights:

  • Mercury vapour, methyl mercury and ethyl mercury all target the central nervous system and mercury
    vapour and ethyl mercury also target the kidneys. Inorganic (metallic) mercury primarily targets the kidneys
    and stomach.
  • Chelators such as DMSA are effective in removing all forms of mercury from the body, but cannot
    reverse central nervous system damage.
  • The allowable or safe intake of mercury has recently been reduced to 0.1 microgram/day per kilogram of
    body weight.
  • The concentration of mercury in the brain, blood and urine correlates with the number of amalgam fillings
    in one's mouth. The concentration increases markedly with increased chewing. Long-term use of nicotine
    gum by people with amalgam (silver) fillings may increase levels by a factor of 10, thus approaching
    occupational safety limits.
  • There is concern, but no clear evidence, that mercury emitted from amalgam fillings may cause or
    worsen degenerative diseases such as ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's
  • Ethyl mercury (thimerosal) is used as a preservative in vaccines. Recent concerns about its toxicity
    have caused US authorities to take steps to remove it by switching from multi-dose vials to single-dose vials
    that do not require a preservative.

  • A recent move by power companies to replace mercury containing pressure-control devices for domestic
    gas supplies has led to numerous spills of mercury in homes. Some 200,000 homes were affected in one
    recent incident. The liquid mercury is difficult to remove and gives off highly toxic vapours, which are
    particularly harmful to infants and children.
  • Several studies have found an association between mercury exposure and cardiovascular disease, but
    other studies have failed to confirm the connection.

Clarkson, Thomas W., et al. The toxicology of mercury – current exposures and clinical manifestations. New England
Journal of Medicine, Vol. 349, October 30, 2003, pp. 1731-37

Editor's comment: The review makes it clear that exposure to mercury is detrimental, but hard to
avoid. Nevertheless, avoiding the placement of new amalgam dental fillings and gradually replacing old
ones with composite fillings, avoiding gum chewing if amalgam fillings are present, and limiting the intake of
fish with high mercury levels are all steps that can be taken by everyone. It is important to realize that
consuming just one 7 oz (198 grams) can of tuna per week translates into a mercury intake of 0.1
microgram/day of mercury per kilogram of body weight – equivalent to the currently recommended maximum
daily intake.

ADA fighting the mercury battle

GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND. The American Dental Association (ADA) has launched an advertising
campaign to discourage patients from having their amalgam (silver) fillings removed. Many patients and
sometimes even their physicians believe that mercury, the main component of amalgams, plays a role in
promoting such varied diseases as Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, and autism. The ADA says the evidence
is not there and their Code of Ethics forbids dentists from advising their patients that there could be a link.
Scientists at the University of Milan disagree with the ADA and point out that several studies have confirmed
that mercury from amalgam dental fillings does enter tissues and that the mercury content of brain, thyroid,
kidney, and pituitary gland tissue is proportional to the number of amalgam fillings. They conclude that the
health effects of amalgam fillings are not at all clear and need further investigation. German researchers
point out that some of the composite materials used in the replacement of amalgam fillings may in
themselves be toxic.

Larkin, M. Don't remove amalgam fillings, urges American Dental Association. The Lancet, Vol. 360,
August 3, 2002, p. 393

Guzzi, G, et al. Should amalgam fillings be removed? The Lancet, Vol. 360, December 21/28, 2002, p.

Editor's comment: Mercury and removed amalgam fillings are classified as hazardous materials
and require extreme caution in disposal. Why they would be hazardous outside the mouth, but not inside
defies comprehension. It is also a scientifically proven fact that the blood level of mercury is twice as high in
dentists as in non-dentists. This fact and the fact that savvy patients don't want mercury in their mouths is
no doubt what is leading many dentists to put a, albeit discrete, sign in their waiting rooms "Mercury-free

Fish, mercury, and heart disease

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. Several studies have shown that regular fish consumption protects against
cardiovascular disease. Other studies have shown that consuming mercury-contaminated fish increases the
risk of coronary heart disease. The beneficial effect of fish consumption is believed to be due to the
presence of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the
tissue of fish and shellfish. Two recent studies have attempted to answer the question "Are the beneficial
effects of fish oils (EPA and DHA) outweighed by the negative effects of mercury"?

The first study, carried out by a team of researchers from eight European countries, Israel and the United
States, involved 684 men who had suffered a first non-fatal heart attack and 724 matched controls. All
participants had their mercury level measured in toenail clippings and their level of DHA measured in a fat
tissue sample taken from the buttock. Participants with a mercury level of 0.66 mcg/gram were found to
have twice (odds ratio of 2.16) the risk of having a first heart attack when compared with participants having
a mercury level of 0.11 mcg/gram. This risk assessment was arrived at after adjusting for age, DHA level in
adipose tissue, body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, smoking status, alcohol intake, HDL cholesterol level,
diabetes, history of hypertension, family history of heart attack, blood levels of vitamin E and beta-carotene,
and toenail level of selenium.

The research team also found that participants with a high (0.44% of total fatty acids) fat tissue content of
DHA had a 41% lower risk of having a first heart attack than did those with a low (0.10% of total fatty acids)
fat tissue level of DHA. This risk assessment was arrived after adjusting for all other known risk factors
including toenail mercury level.

The researchers point out that the main sources of mercury are occupational exposure (dentists), exposure
to silver-mercury amalgam in dental fillings, and fish consumption. They conclude that the health benefit of
fish consumption is significantly diminished if the fish is high in mercury. They also confirm the
cardioprotective effect of fish oils (DHA).

The second study was part of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study begun in 1986 as a cooperative
venture between the Harvard School of Public Health, the Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard
Medical School. The study involved 33,737 male health professionals who had toenail clippings analyzed
for mercury in 1987. After 5 years of follow-up 470 participants had been diagnosed with coronary heart
disease. The researchers observed that dentists, who are habitually exposed to mercury, had toenail
mercury levels (0.91 mcg/gram) that were twice as high as the levels found in non-dentists (0.45 mcg/gram).
They also found a direct relationship between fish consumption and mercury level with participants
consuming an average of 357 grams (3/4 lb) of fish per week having a level of 0.75 mcg/gram while those
who consuming 145 grams (1/3 lb) per week had a level of 0.29 mcg/gram. After adjusting for age, smoking
and other risk factors for heart disease the researchers conclude that there is no clear association between
total mercury exposure and the risk of coronary heart disease, but that a weak relation cannot be ruled

Guallar, E, et al. Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of
Medicine, Vol. 347, November 28, 2002, pp. 1747-54

Yoshizawa, K, et al. Mercury and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of
Medicine, Vol. 347, November 28, 2002, pp. 1755-60

Bolger, PM and Schwetz, BA. Mercury and health. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 347,
November 28, 2002, pp. 1735-36

Editor's comment: The two studies clearly do not agree as to whether high mercury levels are
associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. I am inclined to believe that they are.
Furthermore, there is compelling evidence of significant associations between high mercury levels and
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, congestive heart failure, kidney damage, hearing loss, and high
blood pressure. So definitely, mercury, from whatever source, is a very bad actor and should be avoided.
The joint European/Israeli/US study clearly confirms that DHA (fish oil) is protective against a first heart
attack, so regular consumption of low-mercury-level fish is still a healthy option. An alternative approach to
obtaining DHA (and EPA) on a regular basis is to supplement with 1 gram/day of a high quality, molecular
distilled, non-rancid fish oil containing a minimum of 220 mg EPA and 220 mg DHA. Reliable sources of
such fish oils can be found at
and at

To be on the safe side it is best to eat fish and shellfish with an average mercury content of less than 0.10
ppm. Unfortunately, there are not too many species left that fulfill this requirement. King crab, scallops,
catfish, salmon (fresh, frozen and canned), oysters, shrimp, clams, saltwater perch, flounder, and sole are
all good choices. Salmon is my favourite because of its combination of a low mercury content with a high
level of beneficial EPA and DHA. The following fish species should be avoided: tilefish, swordfish, king
mackerel, shark, grouper, tuna, American lobster, halibut, pollock, sablefish, and Dungeness and blue crab.
Limited sampling of the following also indicated high mercury levels: red snapper, marlin, orange roughy,
saltwater bass. Atlantic cod, haddock, mahi mahi, and ocean perch have mercury levels around 0.18 ppm,
so should be eaten in moderation. For more on mercury content of fish see

Amalgam dental fillings are a health hazard

NEW YORK, NY. Dr. Gary Null, PhD and Dr. Martin Feldman, MD have just released a major report
concerning the health hazards of dental amalgam (silver) fillings. They point to incontrovertible evidence
that mercury continually leaches from amalgam fillings at a rate of about 10-50 times the safe limit (0.28
microgram/day) set by the US Public Health Service. Mercury has been linked to birth defects, multiple
sclerosis, fatigue, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, reduced immune function, antibiotic resistance,
and impaired kidney function. Researchers have found that mercury is a potent killer of white blood cells
and that proper removal of amalgam fillings will restore white blood cell counts to healthy levels. There is
also evidence that the number of T-cells (an important part of immune defenses) decreases substantially
when amalgam fillings are placed in the mouth, but increases again once the fillings are removed.

The American Dental Association (ADA) maintains that amalgam fillings are safe – a position made
completely untenable by the fact that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared amalgam to
be a hazardous material. It is interesting that the ADA, when confronted by a lawsuit regarding the use of
amalgam fillings, made the following statement in its defense, "The ADA owes no legal duty of care to
protect the public from allegedly dangerous products used by dentists."

Several studies have found that chewing markedly increases the amount of mercury released from amalgam
fillings into the mouth and that these mercury vapours easily find their way into the pituitary gland and the
brain. Autopsies performed at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden revealed that people with amalgam fillings
had three times more mercury in the brain and nine times more in the kidneys than did people with no
amalgam fillings.

Common bacteria found in the mouth and intestines can convert mercury to methylmercury, a compound
that is 100 times more toxic than is elemental mercury. Methylmercury passes both the blood-brain and
placental barriers and following a large exposure can remain in the brain for 10 years or more.
Considering that dentists still place about one million amalgam fillings in the mouths of American citizens
every day it is clear that disorders caused by amalgam toxicity is a horrendous problem. Not everyone is
sensitive to mercury, but various studies estimate the percentage that are to be somewhere between 10 and
44 per cent. Fortunately, a few governments are beginning to wake up to the dangers and are passing laws
restricting or outright banning the use of amalgam fillings. The German, Norwegian, Swedish, Canadian and
British governments have advised dentists not to install or remove amalgam fillings in pregnant women.
Since November 2000 the following sign has been posted in all dental offices in California, "WARNING –
Amalgam fillings contain a chemical element known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other
reproductive harm". The California Dental Association apparently lobbied successfully to ensure that the
word mercury did not appear in the warning.

The Australian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicology has concluded that mercury in amalgam fillings is
continuously released from the fillings and accumulates in tissues throughout the body where it interferes
with many physiological functions.

Null, Gary and Feldman, Martin. Mercury dental amalgams: the controversy continues. Journal of
Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2nd Quarter 2002, pp. 85-110 [180 references]

Editor's comment: There is no question in my mind that amalgam fillings pose a serious health risk
to everyone whether or not they actually exhibit symptoms of mercury toxicity at this time. New amalgam
fillings should be avoided and old ones replaced with composite fillings under safe conditions when it
becomes necessary.

Mercury linked to heart disease

ROME, ITALY. Medical researchers at the Catholic University in Rome report that patients with congestive
heart failure (idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy or IDCM) have vastly elevated concentrations of mercury
and antimony in their heart tissue. They compared trace element concentrations in biopsy samples from the
left ventricle among patients with IDCM and patients with valvular disorders or no heart disease at all. The
IDCM patients had mercury concentrations 22,000 times higher than in the controls. Antimony
concentrations were 12,000 times higher and silver, gold, chromium and arsenic levels were also highly
elevated. Holter monitoring revealed frequent ectopic (premature) beats in all the IDCM patients and
ventricular tachycardias in six of the 13 patients. None of the patients had had occupational exposure to the
trace elements. Researchers at the University of Calgary point out that dental amalgams would be the most
likely source of the mercury.

Frustaci, Andrea, et al. Marked elevation of myocardial trace elements in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
compared with secondary cardiac dysfunction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 33,
May 1999, pp. 1578-83 [32 references]

Lorscheider, Fritz and Vimy, Murray. Mercury and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of the
American College of Cardiology, Vol. 35, March 1, 2000, p. 819 (letter to the editor)

Trigeminal neuralgia linked to amalgam fillings

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA. Dr. William Cheshire, a physician at the Mayo Clinic, reports on a case where
a woman's trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) was traced to a galvanic reaction between an amalgam
filling and an adjacent gold-alloy crown. Consumption of tomatoes and other acidic foods produced intense
jolts described as being like those of an "electrical battery". The jolts in turn resulted in excruciating pain in
the trigeminal nerve. Replacing the amalgam filling with a composite resolved the problem. Dr. Cheshire
points out that dissimilar metals in contact with saliva can form a galvanic cell which can generate electrical
currents with several hundred millivolts of potential. He points out that many patients with trigeminal
neuralgia describe their pain in terms of "electrical" jolts and concludes that his patient's neuralgia may well
have been triggered by the galvanic reaction between the amalgam filling and the gold crown.

Cheshire, William P., Jr. The shocking tooth about trigeminal neuralgia. New England Journal of
Medicine, Vol. 342, June 29, 2000, p. 2003 (correspondence)

Dental alloys affect cellular energy production

NOTE: We usually do not report test tube or animal experiments, but thought we would make an
exception in this case. The findings that commonly used dental alloys may interrupt the normal function of
human cells is a first and could have wide-ranging effects.

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. Although nickel is known to be carcinogenic in humans it is still widely used in
certain dental alloys. Researchers at the University of Alabama now report that other components of dental
alloys (beryllium, chromium, and molybdenum) as well as nickel affect the very basic function of human cells
- the production of energy (ATP). ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells and involves highly oxidative
processes. It is becoming increasingly clear that abnormalities in the mitochondrial processes are important
causes of human disease. Some researchers believe that a slowing down of these processes actually
heralds the very first stage in the proliferation of abnormal cells and cancer.

The Alabama researchers exposed cultures of human gingival (gum) cells to solutions of nickel, beryllium,
chromium (tri- and hexavalent) and molybdenum (hexavalent) for periods of 24 and 72 hours. They then
measured the energy production and oxygen consumption of the cells' mitochondria in the various solutions.
Cells in contact with nickel or hexavalent chromium were most affected and showed decreased ATP
(energy) production as well as a decrease in oxygen consumption. The effects of beryllium, molybdenum,
and trivalent chromium were similar, but less pronounced. The researchers conclude that their findings may
be the first indication that some components of common dental alloys may be detrimental to human health.
They urge further research to establish possible synergisms between mixtures of these different metals on
mitochondrial energy production. [54 references]

Messer, R.L.W., et al. An investigation of fibroblast mitochondria enzyme activity and respiration in
response to metallic ions released from dental alloys. J Biomed Mater Res, Vol. 50, 2000, pp. 598-

Dental amalgams come under fire - again!

TAURANGA, NEW ZEALAND. The New Zealand Ministry of Health is reviewing its policy on the use of
mercury-containing amalgams for tooth fillings. This review comes hard on the heels of a precautionary
advice from the UK Department of Health which warns pregnant women not to have amalgam fillings
installed. Dr. Mike Godfrey, a leading environmental physician, points out that several major amalgam
manufacturers have issued Material Safety Data Sheets and Directions for Use which clearly warns of the
many dangers of amalgam fillings. Among the restrictions - amalgam fillings should not be used next to
fillings or crowns containing other metals, they should not be used under crowns, they should not be used in
patients with kidney disease, in pregnant women or in children aged six years or younger. The
manufacturers also warn that mercury vapours from amalgam fillings can induce psychiatric symptoms in
extremely low concentrations. Depression, mental deterioration, and irritability are among the symptoms
listed. Amalagam fillings are banned in Sweden and Health Canada has proposed a limit of one (two
surfaces) amalgam fillings in a child and four (eight surfaces) in an adult. Dr. Godfrey points out that his
chronic fatigue syndrome patients have an average of 15 amalgam fillings each and exhibit many of the
symptoms that the amalgam manufacturers are warning against.

Godfrey, M.E. and Feek, Colin. Dental amalgam. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 111, August 28, 1998,
p. 326 (letters to the editor)

Depression and amalgam fillings

FORT COLLINS, COLORADO. There is some evidence that people with dental amalgam fillings are more
likely to suffer from depression than are people without such fillings. Now researchers at the Rocky
Mountain Research Institute report that removal of amalgam fillings can markedly improve the symptoms of
manic-depressive illness (bipolar disorder). Their study involved 20 patients who had been diagnosed with
manic-depressive illness. All the patients had amalgam fillings (an average of 10 fillings each). The
concentration of mercury in the mouth was measured at the start of the study and was found to increase
almost 300 per cent after chewing gum for 10 minutes. Other research has shown that 75 per cent or more
of the mercury vapor released by chewing is inhaled into the lungs where it enters the blood stream and
subsequently passes into the brain. Eleven of the patients were assigned to have all their mercury fillings
removed and were also given multi-vitamins and antioxidants to help chelate and remove the mercury
released during the dental work. The remaining nine patients had a sealant placed over their fillings and
were told that this sealant would prevent mercury from being released from their fillings. In actual fact there
was no evidence that it would do so. The control group patients were given a supplemental vitamin and
mineral tablet. The patients all completed various questionnaires designed to evaluate their mental health
before and six to eight months after treatment. It was very clear that the patients who had had their
amalgam fillings removed had improved very significantly in such important parameters as anxiety,
depression, paranoia, hostility, and obsessive compulsive behaviour. Some of the patients were able to
discontinue their lithium medication after amalgam removal. The researchers caution that their study was
relatively small and urge large scale clinical trials to validate their findings.

Siblerud, Robert L., et al. Psychometric evidence that dental amalgam mercury may be an etiological factor
in manic depression. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, First Quarter 1998, pp. 31-

Amalgam fillings may damage kidneys.

NEWSBRIEF. Amalgam fillings and skin-lightening creams both contain significant
amounts of mercury. Researchers at the King Faisal Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia have just completed a study aimed at determining whether the mercury
actually gets into the blood stream. The study involved 225 women (aged 17 to
58 years) who had their urine measured for mercury, creatinine, urea, uric acid,
phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and glucose. The urinary mercury level varied
between 0 and 204.8 micrograms per liter and was directly related to the number
of dental amalgam fillings present in the women's mouths. The researchers
conclude that chronic exposure to mercury may be associated with deterioration
of renal (kidney) function.

Biometals, Vol. 10, October 1997, pp. 315-23

Amalgam fillings and hearing loss

FORT COLLINS, COLORADO. The leaching of toxic mercury from amalgam fillings has been implicated in
hearing loss. Mercury toxicity has also been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS). It is believed that the toxic
effects of mercury cause damage to the blood brain barrier, demyelination (damage to the nerves' myelin
sheaths) and slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. Now researchers at the Rocky Mountain Research
Institute provide convincing proof that dental amalgam fillings may be responsible for the hearing loss often
experienced by multiple sclerosis patients. Their experiment involved seven women aged 32-46 years who
had been diagnosed with MS. The women underwent a standard hearing test in a sound booth and then
had all their amalgam fillings replaced with composites. Six to eight months later they were again given the
hearing test. Six of the seven patients had significantly improved hearing in the right ear and five of the
seven showed improvement in the left ear. Overall, hearing improved an average of eight decibels. The
researchers conclude that amalgam fillings may be a significant factor in hearing loss experienced by MS
patients and could be a factor in hearing loss in other people as well.

Siblerud, Robert L. and Kienholz, Eldon. Evidence that mercury from dental amalgam may cause hearing
loss in multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, Fourth Quarter, 1997,
pp. 240-44

Chronic mercury poisoning is widespread

HILLEROED, DENMARK. A Danish dentist, Dr. H. Lichtenberg, reports that most of his patients with
amalgam fillings suffer from chronic mercury poisoning. Dr. Lichtenberg measured the actual concentration
of mercury vapour in the mouths of his patients and found that it varied between 3 micrograms of mercury
vapour per cubic meter of air and 329 mcg/m3 with an average of 54.6 mcg/m3. This compares to a
maximum permitted level in the workplace of 50 mcg/m3 for people working eight hours a day five days a
week. NOTE: This level applies to Denmark; the maximum level permitted in Switzerland is 10 mcg/m3 and
in the USA it is 100 mcg/m3. A recent conference in Canada proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for
mercury vapour of 0.014 mcg/kg of body weight per day; this corresponds to a maximum tolerable daily
intake of 1.0 mcg for a person weighing 70 kilograms. Most of Dr. Lichtenberg's patients were thus exposed
to 50 times the TDI. More than half of Dr. Lichtenberg's patients exhibited one or more of the following
symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning - fatigue, poor concentration, poor memory, bloating, joint pain,
muscle fatigue, cold hands and feet, irritability, and headache. Mercury poisoning from dental fillings has
also been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and heart disease.

Lichtenberg, H. Mercury vapour in the oral cavity in relation to number of amalgam surfaces and the classic
symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 2, Second
Quarter 1996, pp. 87-94

Mercury linked to heart disease

HELSINKI, FINLAND. Researchers at the University of Kuopio in Finland have just completed a major study
which clearly implicates mercury as a major cause of heart attacks and other coronary and cardiovascular
diseases. The researchers set out to discover why men in Eastern Finland who eat lots of locally caught fish
have an exceptionally high mortality from cardiovascular disease. Their conclusion was that the non-fatty
freshwater fish eaten in Eastern Finland contains large amounts of mercury. The researchers discovered
that men who had a high fish consumption not only had a high mercury content in their hair and urine, but
also had a two-fold higher risk of having a heart attack and a three-fold higher risk of dying from heart
disease than did men with a lower content of mercury in their hair. Men who ate fatty, ocean-caught fish
such as salmon, herring, and tuna did not have an increased level of mercury in their hair. The researchers
believe that mercury promotes heart disease in several ways: mercury promotes free radical generation; it
inactivates the body's natural antioxidant glutathione; and it binds with selenium thus making it unavailable
as an antioxidant and component of glutathione peroxidase. All these mechanisms would lead to an
increased level of lipid peroxidation and subsequent heart disease. The researchers also point out that
earlier studies have discovered a clear correlation between the number of amalgam tooth fillings and the risk
of heart attack. Selenium and vitamin E have both been found to have a protective effect against mercury

Salonen, Jukka T. et al. Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction
and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in Eastern Finnish men. Circulation, Vol. 91, No. 3, February
1, 1995, pp. 645-55

Peer of the Realm questions use of amalgam fillings

LONDON, ENGLAND. Lord Baldwin, joint chairman of the British Parliamentary Group for Alternative and
Complementary Medicine, is questioning the safety of amalgam dental fillings. In a letter published in the
British Medical Journal Lord Baldwin asserts that it is up to the dental profession to prove that amalgam
fillings are safe and, in Lord Baldwin's opinion, this they have not done. To point to the fact that amalgam
fillings have been used for a hundred years is not a proof of safety anymore than it is to claim that tobacco
smoking must be safe because people have been doing it for a long time, says Lord Baldwin.

Baldwin, E.A.A. Controlled trials of dental amalgam are needed. British Medical Journal, Vol. 309, October
29, 1994, p. 1161


American Dental Association's
Special Report and Statement of Confidence
in Dental Amalgam


This document is online at:

This response was prepared by the International Academy of Oral
Medicine and Toxicology, a Canadian non-profit charitable organization dedicated to
research and education. The IAOMT's corporate center is in Canada, but send all mail to
its Executive Director, Michael Ziff, D.D.S, at P.O. Box 608531, Orlando, FL, 32860-8531.



recent history.

PRESENTATION: ADA claims and our

CONCLUSION: The ADA misinforms the

REFERENCES: Forty-four books and
periodical articles.



In 1985 the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT)
reviewed the transcript of the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) Workshop on
the Biocompatibility of Metals in Dentistry1 and the then available scientific
literature and concluded that there was reasonable doubt about the safety of dental
amalgam. We recommended that:

IAOMT Says: Discontinue Amalgams

The use of mercury/silver fillings should be discontinued until such time as
primary pathological evidence of amalgam safety is produced.

ADA Claims: Amalgam Safe

Since that time, there have been a series of published statements/articles from
the American Dental Association (ADA) and Canadian Dental Association (CDA), all claiming
that dental amalgam was safe for use as a filling material. None of these pronouncements
referenced or provided any basic scientific research showing the safety of amalgam. Since
the majority of dentists in North America rely on the guidelines of the leadership of the
ADA, the CDA and the NIDR, it is imperative that these organizations be scientifically
accurate when they make statements to the profession which can affect the public health.
To address this issue of accuracy the following scientific response was prepared by the
Board of Directors of IAOMT on behalf of our members. Claims of alleged safety are
compared with the documented scientific literature.

IAOMT Recommends Moratorium on Amalgams

Since our 1985 recommended moratorium on future placement of mercury/silver
fillings, scientific research has furthered reinforced the basis for our concern. The
IAOMT acknowledges that primary pathological data linking mercury from dental amalgam with
any specific disease is not available. This would in fact be impossible because primary
studies have never been undertaken. However, we understand that such investigations are
currently underway, partially funded by this academy.

In the interest of public safety, we reaffirm our 1985 position that the use of
this material should cease.


In April of 1990 the ADA published a Special Report, entitled When Your
Patients Ask About Mercury In Amalgam.2

The ADA Special Report Is Misleading

This American Dental Association Special Report is of concern because it omits
information and contains misinformation which misleads patients and dentists regarding
amalgam safety. This misinformation could have a serious impact, preventing patients from
making an accurate informed consent.

The IAOMT has reviewed a few of the pertinent statements and compared them to
the published and documented scientific facts.




Eleven American Dental Association Claims 2

  Scientifically Refuted


.. ITEM 1 -->
















The Patient Asks,

"But isn't mercury poisonous?"
The ADA Answers:

when used in dental amalgam. Alone, in the form scientists call elemental mercury and the
public sometimes calls quicksilver, mercury is toxic at high concentrations. However, when
mercury is combined with other metals, such as the silver, tin, and copper, it reacts with
them to form a biologically inactive substance."

IAOMT Response:

The ADA answer
is false and misleading.


The ADA answer fails to mention that set dental amalgam continuously releases

"It is a fallacy that mercury is neutralized when it is combined with
other components of silver dental amalgam. The laws of physical chemistry are followed.
Mercury is diluted by the other components of amalgam in what may be considered a solid
solution. Although the vapor pressure of mercury is reduced, mercury vapor is still
released. An identical situation arises when alcohol is diluted by water." 3

Research has shown that mercury even in extremely small amounts has toxic
effects, for example, low dose mercury exposure has been shown to produce neurological
pathology, cytotoxicity to nerve tissue.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

We find it particularly disturbing that the ADA has made
such a blanket statement without any scientific support.

.. ITEM 2 -->





The Patient Asks,

"Does the mercury come out of my fillings

when I eat or chew gum?"
The ADA Answers:

advances in both equipment and measurement techniques have allowed researchers to detect
extremely low levels of mercury vapor in patients' breath after they have chewed
vigorously. Very small quantities of this mercury vapor are absorbed by the body instead
of being exhaled. But no evidence exists that associate this minute amount of mercury
vapor with any toxic effects."

IAOMT Response:

ADA answer is false.


Published experimental evidence as early as 1926 has demonstrated that mercury
is not locked in, but is released from fillings.16 More recent research has
shown that both chewing and tooth brushing release mercury vapor into the human oral
cavity.17 18 19

Recent advances in both equipment and measurement technique have allowed
researchers to find intra-oral mercury levels thirty to one hundred times higher that the
United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) maximum allowable concentration
for air quality. (0.3 part per million)20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Toxicology
authorities maintain that there is no threshold level of mercury exposure which can be
considered totally harmless.27 28

Dental fillings release mercury. The mercury release dramatically increases
with pressure or heat stimulation to the fillings and does not return to baseline for more
than 90 minutes.29 30 This continual release of mercury will inevitably result
in measurable exposure from the 17,000 breaths that a person inhales daily. Once this
mercury is inhaled 74% to 100% of the mercury is absorbed from the lung into the blood
stream and distributed throughout the body.31 Personal habits such as chewing
gum, grinding teeth and mouth breathing will greatly increase an individuals daily dose
exposure to dental amalgam mercury. The 1/2 life for mercury in humans is approximately 70
days. Thus, small multiple daily doses of mercury will result in a significant
accumulation over time. The critical issues are the potential for exposure to the
developing fetus and mercury accumulation in children because of their low body weight.

To study these possibilities Vimy et al. (1990) designed an elegant animal
experiment utilizing sheep and radioactively tagged mercury203. Twelve occlusal amalgams
were placed in the molars of pregnant sheep. The mothers femoral vein, the placental sack
and the femoral vein of the fetus were cannulated.32 33 Radioactivity
measurements determined the presence and quantity of mercury from the dental amalgam
fillings in the various body tissues of both the mother and fetuses. The experiment is
specific for mercury from fillings, since radioactive mercury is not a naturally occuring
substance in the environment. The design of this experiment eliminates the issue of
mercury source.

1) Within 3 days after amalgam placement mercury was found in the maternal
blood, amniotic fluid, fetal blood, and maternal urine and feces.

2) By 16 days after amalgam placement the maternal mercury levels were highest
in the kidney, liver, G.I. tract, and thyroid. The mercury levels in the fetus were
highest in the pituitary, liver, kidney, and placental cotyledon.

3) At 33 days after amalgam placement (birthtime), most fetal tissues had
higher levels of mercury than the maternal tissues. Specifically, the fetal liver,
epiphysial bone, bile, bone marrow, blood, and brain.

4) During lactation there was 8 times more mercury in the milk than maternal
blood serum. This resulted in an increase in mercury exposure to the neonate.

5) Seventy-three days after amalgam placement, mercury levels in the maternal
kidneys, liver, parotid glands, pancreas, pituitary glands, urine, bile, brain, and
thyroid were still rising slowly.

The researchers concluded that mercury vapor released from dental amalgam
fillings is readily absorbed in lung, gastrointestinal tract and jaw bone and
progressively accumulates in maternal and fetal tissues with exposure duration. Neonatal
mercury exposure from this dental material occurs via milk. They stated in their
conclusions that, "our laboratory findings in this investigation are at variance with
the anecdotal opinion of the dental profession, which claims that amalgam tooth fillings
are safe."

.. ITEM 3 -->





The Patient Asks,

"Are there other sources of mercury?"
The ADA Answers:

a major source of mercury exposure is from fish in the diet. . . . Research shows that you
may be exposed to more mercury from fish than from dental amalgams."

IAOMT Response:

The ADA answer
is scientifically inaccurate and misleading.


In contrast to the ADA position, it has been scientifically concluded that
mercury/silver fillings constitutes the largest source of inorganic mercury exposure to
the general population and this exposure exceeds organic mercury exposure from fish.34
Autopsies of people with fillings confirm that dietary mercury exposure is apparently much
less than from dental amalgam mercury.35 36 Authorities in the field of metal
toxicology have concluded that this chronic exposure from dental fillings makes the
predominant contribution of human exposure to mercury.37

.. ITEM 4 -->





The Patient Asks,

"Are these other materials safe?"
The ADA Answers:

ADA has approved a number of them as 'safe and effective,' and I have confidence in that
seal of approval. The profession has been using amalgam for more than 150 years, and some
of these newer materials have been around for only a decade or less, so we don't have the
long-standing history of safety with them that we have with amalgam."

IAOMT Response:

The ADA answer
is misleading.


There is no ADA certification for the mixed amalgam as, "safe and
effective." The ADA has maintained that mixed dental amalgam is a reaction product
manufactured by the individual dentist and therefore cannot be certified and it is the
responsibility of the individual dentist to determine the efficacy of the materials and
their appropriateness for each patient.38 One reading this paragraph is given
the distinct impression that dental amalgam has the ADA seal of approval as, "safe
and effective" and has been certified. What has been certified is the purity of the
mercury and the composition of the silver alloy.

.. ITEM 5 -->






Dental Association's: Special Report:

In the statement of confidence in amalgam, the ADA no longer maintains that the
safety of this dental implant has been scientifically proven but relies on the anecdotal
opinion of 150 years of "successful" use.

The ADA States:

strongest and most convincing support we have for the safety of dental amalgam is the fact
that each year more than 100 million amalgam fillings are placed in the United

IAOMT Response:

This is a
chilling thought.


It should be cause for concern that approximately seventy-two tons of mercury
are used annually in dentistry, much of it being implanted in the teeth of North Americans
without any proof of safety. "The absence of evidence is not evidence of
absence" (Carl Sagan).

Historically numerous common products were thought to be safe; for example
asbestos, lead, and DDT. In each case the scientific concerns were immediately discounted
by the industry responsible for the production or use of the material and often the
assertions of safety were initially supported by the responsible government agencies.
After a period of time as the evidence became overwhelming and legal liability impossible
to ignore, they were regulated or withdrawn from the market. Each of these products
demonstrated pathology after a latency period of chronic low dose exposure as does

Moreover, the resulting pathology from mercury tends to be of a medical nature
and would not be apparent to most dentists. Thus, in the case of amalgam mercury exposure,
if a health problem should exist, most dentists are not trained to diagnose such a
condition and most physicians would not be aware of the possibility that mercury from
fillings might have induced the pathology.

.. ITEM 6 -->





The ADA Statement Of Confidence
In Amalgam claims:

"The Food and Drug Administration in
1987 classified mercury amalgam as a Class I dental device."

IAOMT Response:

The ADA statement is



In fact, the FDA in 1987 classified the alloy and the mercury components of
mercury amalgam separately. They refused to classify the set amalgam reaction product.

.. ITEM 7 -->






The Patient Asks,

"If there is any question at all, wouldn't it be wise for concerned patients to
simply have their amalgam fillings removed and replaced with other materials?"
The ADA Answers:

ADA Answers,

"Unless the patient suffers an immediate adverse (allergic) reaction to an amalgam, a
reaction that does not resolve in a short time, it is not advisable to have amalgam
fillings removed."

Since 1984 the ADA has claimed that the incidence of hypersensitivity to
mercury is less than 1%.39

IAOMT Response:

The ADA answer
is both false and misleading.


The ADA position is in stark contrast to the published scientific literature
both before and after 1984.

It has been reported that cutaneous (skin) allergy to mercury occurs in
approximately 5% of the general population.

Studies of those with amalgam fillings finds that between 2% - 35% test
hypersensitive to mercury.40 41 42 None of the experimental subjects without
dental amalgam tested positive for allergy to mercury.

The development of this adverse reaction may not be immediate but, research
shows that the incidence of allergy gradually increases with time and onset may be delayed
five or more years.43

.. ITEM 8 -->





American Dental
Association's: Special Report

does includes a short bibliography.
The ADA 's Sources:

ADA supports their argument with five references.

Bibliography: 1) Reinhardt, J.W. Risk assessment of mercury exposure from
dental amalgams. J. Public Health Dent 48:172-7, 1988

2) Langan, D.C., Fan, P.L., Hoos, A.A. The use of mercury in dentistry: a critical review
of the recent literature. JADA 115:867-880, 1987

3) Fan, P.L. Safety of Amalgam. CDA J 15:34-6 1987

4) The Mercury Scare. Consumer Reports, March 1986

5) Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment and Council on Dental
Therapeutics. Safety of amalgam-an update. JADA 119:204-5 1989

IAOMT Response:

bibliography cited is misleading.


The total lack of valid science to support the continued use of amalgam is
apparent in the ADA Special Reports bibliography.

They cite only review articles and lay media reports and no primary research
into either animal or human physiological or immunological reaction to dental amalgam

The review articles and lay reports rely almost exclusively on measurements of
mercury from blood, and urine to support their conclusions. On page 396 of the Special
Report the author partially quotes the conclusion of the 1984 NIDR Workshop on the
Biocompatibility of Metals in Dentistry, "and there appears to be little correlation
between (mercury) levels in urine, blood, or hair, and toxic effects." They thereby
negate the validity of their own bibliographical references.

The scientific literature clearly does not support such an approach.

Quoting directly from the research, "Urinary mercury levels may give some
indication of the degree of exposure. They are of limited value in the diagnosis of
poisoning, since high levels can be found in human subjects who are symptom-free, and low
levels in those exhibiting marked evidence of mercurialism. It has been suggested that, in
some cases, failure to excrete mercury is a factor in the development of poisoning. Those
investigators that have studied the subject are in almost unanimous agreement that there
is poor correlation between the urinary excretion of mercury and the occurrence of
demonstrable evidence of poisoning." 44

Moreover, none of the articles referenced in the ADA bibliography contain hard
research. They merely cited other primary research papers to support their divergent
conclusions. Many of the primary research scientists referenced in the review articles did
not conclude that amalgam was safe. This bibliography would therefore be very misleading
to anyone not familiar with the current research.

.. ITEM 9 -->






"Filling Dental
Health Care Needs"

A Brochure from the ADA
The ADA Promotes:

ADA utilized this Special Report to promote the sale of their patient education brochure
on the safety of dental amalgam titled, Filling Dental Health Care Needs (W186).

IAOMT Response:

This brochure
makes many of the same false claims and factual errors found in the ADA's Special Report.


It is the conclusion of this academy, the International Academy of Oral
Medicine and Toxicology, that the use of the ADA's brochure alone would misinform dental
patients regarding the potential risks they might undergo from having this material
implanted and leave the dentist at risk of legal liability and guilty of negligent

.. ITEM 10 -->




The ADA Principals
of Ethics

found in the ADA's: Special Report
The ADA States:

ADA Principals of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct Sect E under Research and
Development states, "The dentist has the obligation to make known to all the results
of his investigations if they have an effect on public health."

IAOMT Response:

The patient's
full informed consent is subverted.


Scientific documentation has clearly proven chronic exposure, biological
accumulation, and delayed adverse immune response to mercury from amalgam fillings. The
ADA, by promoting the use of this document and pamphlet W186, is apparently suggesting
that dentists deliberately violate their own code of ethics and withhold vital information
from their patients and the public. Such action cannot help but intentionally violate the
patients right to full informed consent.

.. ITEM 11 -->




Changes to the

American Dental Association's: Special Report
The ADA Alters:

ADA and CDA Principals of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct was recently changed to
say, "the removal of amalgam restorations from the non-allergic patient for the
alleged purpose of removing toxic substances from the body, when such treatment is
performed solely at the recommendation or suggestion of the dentist, is improper and

IAOMT Response:

These changes
violated patients' rights.


We conclude that the alteration of the ADA and CDA code of ethics to indict
those dentists who recommend the removal of amalgam because of suspected toxicity violated
the rights of the patient to informed consent and freedom of choice between the doctor and

Although the Associations state that "dentists should choose the best
possible restorative material for each patient on an individual basis," this is
clearly not their intent. The changes to the Principals of Ethics and Code of Professional
Conduct restrict the dentists freedom of speech and deprive the patient of the legal right
to informed consent and freedom of choice.





Given the inconsistencies between the scientific facts and this American Dental
Association Special Report, the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology has
serious concerns regarding the ADA's lack of scientific rigor and the tendency to
misinform the dental profession and, thereby, the public at large regarding the
established scientific facts about amalgam safety.

We hereby call to task the ADA for failure to adequately support their position
on dental amalgam with hard scientific data. This failure has resulted in inadequate
protection to the public and inadequately protects the membership of the ADA from personal
harm due to amalgam usage.

Protocol for Amalgam-Mercury-Silver Filling Removal


First in every concerned doctor's mind is the protection of the patient from
additional exposure to mercury. This is especially true of the mercury toxic patient. The
mercury toxic patient may have been exposed to varying amounts of mercury from diet,
environment, employment or from mercury/silver dental fillings. All forms are cumulative
and can contribute to the body burden. The goal of this preferred procedure is to minimize
any additional exposure of the patient, ourselves, or staff to mercury.

During chewing the patient is exposed to intraoral levels which are several times the EPA
allowable air concentration. 2 During the
removal or placement of amalgam the patient can be exposed to amounts which are a thousand
times greater than the EPA allowable concentration.3 Once the
drill touches the filling temperature increases immediately vaporizing the mercury
component of the alloy. There are 8 steps to greatly reducing everyone's exposure.

1. Keep the fillings cool

All removal must be done under cold water spray with copious amounts of water.

Once the removal has begun, the mercury vapor will be continuously released from the

2. Use a high volume evacuator

Therefore, a high volume evacuator tip should be kept near the tooth (1/2 inch)
at all times to evacuate this vapor from the area of the patient. Polishing amalgam can
create very dangerous levels of mercury and should be avoided especially for the mercury
toxic patient.

3. Provide an alternative air source

All patients having amalgam removed or placed should be provided with an
alternative air source and instructed to not breathe through their mouth during treatment.
A nasal hood such as is used with the nitrous oxide analgesia equipment is excellent. Air
is best and oxygen is acceptable although not required. If just air is used it should be
clean and free of mercury vapor preferably from outside the dental office.

4. Immediately dispose of the mercury alloy

Particles of mercury alloy should be washed and vacuumed away as soon as they
are generated. The filling should be sectioned and removed in large pieces to reduce

At present the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT) has approved
removal both with and without the use of a rubber dam. Some evidence exist to support both
views since high levels of mercury and amalgam particles can be found under the dam. All
members are agreed that whether or not a rubber dam is used the patient should be
instructed to not breathe through their mouth or swallow the particles. Some experts feel
that it is better to remove the amalgam first and then apply the dam if needed for
restorative procedures.

5. Lavage, and change gloves

After the fillings have been removed, take off the rubber dam if one was used
and lavage the patients mouth for at least 30 seconds with cold water and vacuum. Remove
your gloves and replace them with a new pair. If a restorative procedure is next then
reapply a new dam and proceed.

6. Immediately clean patient

Immediately change patient's protective wear and clean their face.


7. Consider nutritional support

Consider appropriate nutritional support before, during and after removal.


8. Keep room air pure

Install room air purifiers or ionizers and fans for everyone's
well being.




requires that employees be given written informed consent before the use of any toxic
chemicals of which mercury is one. Elemental mercury vapor is one of the most toxic forms
of mercury and should not breathed. Women of child bearing age should be exposed to no
more than 10% of the OSHA MAC6. Women who
are pregnant should be exposed to no mercury.7 If you use
mercury or remove mercury in any form the National Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) has recommended that your employees be medically monitored annually.


An approved mask is appropriate for wearing during all dental procedures which
will expose you or your staff to mercury.8

The manner in which dentists operate their equipment dramatically affects the amount of
mercury released. Never drill on mercury high dry. It is hazardous to you, your staff, and
your patient. Levels as high as 4000 m g/M3 have been measured 18" from the drill
when used high dry. Levels over 1000 m g/M3 are measurable upon opening an amalgam mixing

One out of 7 California dental offices tested over the OSHA TWA of 50 m g/M 3 . 100% of
the vacuum cleaner exhaust tested over 100 m g/M 3 . Any office where mercury is used
should be tested regularly and staff should be monitored for exposure. Testing services
are available and a mercury sensor badge is available for personnel monitoring. They
should test inside storage areas and along baseboards where mercury might have dropped.
Office spills can go undetected for years and are extremely hazardous.


Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi, thanks for that article. I have 4 amalgam fillings. I have hypoglycemia and I wonder if the fillings caused that because other than that I'm very healthy.

I was wondering if the chronic fatigue stayed away?

July 1, 2008 at 3:28 PM  

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